TBIs: effects, stats, and treatments

By: Mila Hart and Liv Miller

TBI stands for traumatic brain injury. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons defines a traumatic brain injury as “A disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a blow, bump or jolt to the head, the head suddenly and violently hitting an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue”. 

The four main types of TBIs include: concussions, contusions, penetrating injuries, and anoxic brain injuries.

  • Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries and are caused by a blow to the head.
  • Contusions are slightly more severe then concussions. Contusions are a bruise to the brain that causes bleeding and swelling inside of the brain.
  • A penetrating brain injury is when an object penetrates the skull and hurts the brain.
  • Anoxic brain injuries are the most severe TBIs. They are caused by a complete lack of oxygen to the brain. Anoxic brain injuries are often fatal.

To learn more about the four main types of TBIs visit Dolmanlaw.com.

The symptoms that follow a traumatic brain injury can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the injury. There are a wide variety of effects and symptoms that people who have suffered a TBI may experience. Some symptoms include vomiting, headache, dizziness and balance concerns, breathing problems, confusion, ect., and that is just the beginning.

Although some of these symptoms can be short term and get less severe over time, there is a good chance that someone can experience many long term effects after suffering a traumatic brain injury. These include loss of memory (amnesia), focal neurological deficits such as muscle weakness, loss of vision, change in speech, ect., and an overall weakened mental state.

If someone were to experience a more serious traumatic brain injury, or multiple ones over a short period of time, they might be more likely to go into a vegetative state or even die. The long term effect can get even worse if you experience multiple TBIs. Psychology Today says that if you have suffered three or more concussions you are more likely to have long-term cognitive impairment and emotional struggles. Multiple concussions can cause depression, anger, and memory loss. To learn more about the symptoms for a TBI visit the CDCs website.

It is estimated that around 1.6 to 3.8 million sports related traumatic brain injuries occur every year, and recreational activities contribute to about 21 percent of all TBIs among American children and adolescents. The reason why sports often contribute to traumatic brain injuries is because more aggressive sports, like football, soccer, rugby, lacrosse, etc. involve a lot of person to person contact often resulting in blows to the head.

There also may be a high underestimate of traumatic brain injuries reported due to many people failing to seek medical help after sustaining their injury. Many people, especially adolescents, are likely to assume they have just a mild concussion and fail to go to the doctor. This is not good because it can result in their condition getting worse, and put them at a higher risk of sustaining serious long term injuries.

There are several ways to treat a TBI. Some include rest, medication, and surgery. The treatment will vary depending on how severe the injury is. The medication often used to treat a TBI is called Diuretic. Diuretic helps remove all extra water from the body and treats high blood pressure.

The type of surgery needed to treat a severe TBI is called a decompressive craniectomy. This surgery removes part of the skull so that an injured brain can swell without being squeezed.

Although these are very effective treatments, there is still a likely possibility a patient can end up paralyzed or dead. So, it is very important to seek help right away if you were to sustain a TBI. No matter how serious it seems at the moment it is better to be safe than sorry.

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Seasonal holidays

By: Fatima Mohamud and Sumaya Noor

Which holidays are celebrated this season?

In the months of November, December, and January, many celebrations and festivals are celebrated throughout several cultures and religions. Kwanzaa, Hanukkah, Christmas, Thanksgiving, and Diwali are some of the notable holidays in these festive months.

Who celebrates these holidays?

Christmas is celebrated by Christians of all backgrounds. The holiday is one of the biggest celebrations across the globe, with over 2 billion believers indulging in the festival. It’s from December 24 to December 25, and consists of celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ, sharing gifts, and spending time with family and friends. Decorations and festive treats are very popular during Christmas.

Kwanzaa is a tradition that honors African heritage and African culture and is viewed by Africans and African Americans. Kwanzaa isn’t a religious holiday but more of a cultural one as there is no religion tied to it. Celebrated for a week from December 26 to January 1, the holiday brings people together and shares gifts. Kwanzaa first became a holiday less than 60 years ago.

Hanukkah is a Jewish festival observed by Jews across the world. Hanukkah celebrates the recovery of Jerusalem. Although not the holiest holiday observed by Jews, (the holiest is Yom Kippur) it’s still very significant and is from November 28 to December 6 this year. During Hanukkah, Jews read the Torah and scriptures, recite the Psalms, light the Hanukkiah/menorah and bless themselves.

What are some other holidays observed during the festive times?

Diwali is a festivity that celebrates the light and its power over the dark. It is celebrated by Hindus and Buddhists. To honor the light, people light candles and oil lamps while praying for their wellbeing. The festival goes on for 5 days, starting on November 4 and ending November 9 this year. On the night of Diwali, many Hindus pray to Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and pride, and Ganesh the god of good luck and wisdom towards the coming year.

Many people who are not Hindu or Buddhists also take part in this holiday. In the days coming before Diwali, many people exchange gifts, foods and hang up decorations just like for other holidays. In north India, many people host parties late at night with cultural food, drinks and lots of games such as gambling, it’s an ongoing tradition for many. Although this is not a requirement, many people do so to get together to celebrate.

New Year’s Eve is a celebration for people all over the world. It doesn’t follow a specific religion or belief, only to those who feel like celebrating the coming year. Lots of people buy decorations such as the last two numbers of the incoming year and throw lots of parties that night.

In New York, every year at Times Square there is a very iconic late night show that hosts singing, performances, and games before the clock hits midnight. This tradition has been going for many years and lots of people stay up to watch or go in person if they have the chance.

Thousands of people come up with New Year’s Resolutions to set a goal or plan to overcome. It’s a great way to have something to look forward to.

Thanksgiving is a mostly American national holiday celebrated by most people of color, religion, or beliefs. It falls on November 25th and it’s not long before winter starts. This holiday consists of spending time with loved ones, family and friends to show appreciation and kindness. Others have big feats or harvests to celebrate the day and prepare for it nights before. People get together to enjoy turkey, a very common food that is usually eaten at this time of year where the animal is most popular before it migrates to the south.

During this holiday flights can get very expensive and traffic will become more common because of people wanting to go visit family or friends to enjoy the holiday.